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Subsequently, preosteoclasts fuse and differentiate into functional mature multinucleated osteoclasts.8 The cytokine M-CSF, a prerequisite for the induction of osteoclast, promotes the proliferation and survival of preosteoclasts and induces the binding of RANKL with its receptor RANK on the cell membrane.9 RANKL activates a variety of downstream signaling pathways such as NF-κB, MAPKs, and PI3K/AKT to induce ...
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