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End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is the terminal stage of irreversible decline in renal function caused by various kidney diseases. Patients can only rely on alternative treatments (including kidney transplantation, hemodialysis, and peritoneal dialysis) to maintain a normal life.1 With the rapid development of organ transplantation in China, an increasing number of patients ESRD patients are undergoing kidney transplantation (KT).

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  • Healthcare 59.15%
    • Hospitals, doctors and medical care 100.00%
  • Science and technology 40.85%

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